Version: 5.6
创建和使用材质
内容和上下文

标准着色器

Unity 标准着色器是一个包含一整套功能的内置着色器。此着色器可用于渲染“真实世界”的对象,如石头、木头、玻璃、塑料和金属,并支持各种着色器类型和组合。只需在材质编辑器中使用或不使用各种纹理字段和参数即可启用或禁用此着色器的功能。

标准着色器还包含一种称为__基于物理着色 (Physically Based Shading)__ 的高级光照模型。基于物理着色 (PBS) 以一种模仿现实的方式模拟材质和光照之间的相互作用。PBS 最近才在实时图形中成为可能。在光照和材质需要以直观而逼真的状态共存的情况下,这种光照模型的效果最佳。

我们基于物理着色背后的理念是创建一种用户友好的方法,在不同的光照条件下实现一致、合理的外观。它模拟了光在现实中的表现,而不使用可能有效或无效的多个临时模型。为此,它遵循物理学原理,包括能量守恒(意味着对象反射的光绝不会多于接受的光)、菲涅耳反射(所有表面在掠射角处具有更高的反射率)以及表面如何遮挡自身(所谓的几何术语)等等。

标准着色器在设计时就考虑了硬表面(也称为“建筑材质”),能够处理大多数现实世界的材质,如石头、玻璃、陶瓷、黄铜、银或橡胶。甚至对于皮肤、头发和布料等非硬质材质也表现得很不错。

A scene rendered using the standard shader on all models
A scene rendered using the standard shader on all models

With the Standard Shader, a large range of shader types (such as such as Diffuse, Specular, Bumped Specular, Reflective) are combined into a single shader intended to be used across all material types. The benefit of this is that the same lighting calculations are used in all areas of your scene, which gives a realistic, consistent and believable distribution of light and shade across all models that use the shader.

术语

在谈论 Unity 中的基于物理着色时,有许多概念非常有用。这些概念包括:

  • 能量守恒 (Energy conservation) - 这是一种物理学概念,可确保对象反射的光绝不会多于接受的光。材质的镜面反射越强,其漫射就应该越弱;表面越平滑,高光越强且高光面积越小。
The light rendered at each point on a surface is calculated to be the same as the amout of light received from its environment. The microfacets of rough surfaces are affected by light from a wider area. Smoother surfaces give stronger and smaller highlights. Point A reflects light from the source towards the camera. Point B takes on a blue tint from ambient light from the sky. Point C takes its ambient and reflective lighting from the surrounding ground colours.
The light rendered at each point on a surface is calculated to be the same as the amout of light received from its environment. The microfacets of rough surfaces are affected by light from a wider area. Smoother surfaces give stronger and smaller highlights. Point A reflects light from the source towards the camera. Point B takes on a blue tint from ambient light from the sky. Point C takes its ambient and reflective lighting from the surrounding ground colours.
  • 高动态范围 (High Dynamic Range, HDR) - 这是指超出常规 0–1 范围的颜色。例如,太阳很容易比蓝天亮十倍。有关深入讨论,请参阅 Unity 手册 HDR 页面。
A scene using High Dynamic Range. The sunlight reflecting in the car window appears far brighter than other objects in the scene, because it has been processed using HDR
A scene using High Dynamic Range. The sunlight reflecting in the car window appears far brighter than other objects in the scene, because it has been processed using HDR
创建和使用材质
内容和上下文
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