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Materials, Shaders & Textures

Rendering in Unity uses Materials, Shaders and Textures. All three have a close relationship.

  • Materials define how a surface should be rendered, by including references to the Textures it uses, tiling information, Color tints and more. The available options for a Material depend on which Shader the Material is using.

  • Shaders are small scriptsA piece of code that allows you to create your own Components, trigger game events, modify Component properties over time and respond to user input in any way you like. More info
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    that contain the mathematical calculations and algorithms for calculating the Color of each pixelThe smallest unit in a computer image. Pixel size depends on your screen resolution. Pixel lighting is calculated at every screen pixel. More info
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    rendered, based on the lighting input and the Material configuration.

  • Textures are bitmap images. A Material can contain references to textures, so that the Material’s Shader can use the textures while calculating the surface color of a GameObjectThe fundamental object in Unity scenes, which can represent characters, props, scenery, cameras, waypoints, and more. A GameObject’s functionality is defined by the Components attached to it. More info
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    . In addition to basic Color (Albedo) of a GameObject’s surface, Textures can represent many other aspects of a Material’s surface such as its reflectivity or roughness.

A Material specifies one specific Shader to use, and the Shader used determines which options are available in the Material. A Shader specifies one or more Texture variables that it expects to use, and the Material InspectorA Unity window that displays information about the currently selected GameObject, Asset or Project Settings, alowing you to inspect and edit the values. More info
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in Unity allows you to assign your own Texture AssetsAny media or data that can be used in your game or Project. An asset may come from a file created outside of Unity, such as a 3D model, an audio file or an image. You can also create some asset types in Unity, such as an Animator Controller, an Audio Mixer or a Render Texture. More info
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to these Texture variables.

For most normal renderingThe process of drawing graphics to the screen (or to a render texture). By default, the main camera in Unity renders its view to the screen. More info
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(such as rendering characters, scenery, environments, solid and transparent GameObjects, hard and soft surfaces) the Standard ShaderA built-in shader for rendering real-world objects such as stone, wood, glass, plastic and metal. Supports a wide range of shader types and combinations. More info
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is usually the best choice. This is a highly customisable shader which is capable of rendering many types of surface in a highly realistic way.

There are other situations where a different built-in Shader, or even a custom written shader might be appropriate (for example liquids, foliage, refractive glass, particle effects, cartoony, illustrative or other artistic effects, or other special effects like night vision, heat vision or x-ray vision).

For more information, see the following pages:

  • 2017–10–26 New page

  • 2017–10–26 Page amended with limited editorial review

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