Legacy Documentation: Version 2018.2 (Go to current version)
Constant Force 2D
Area Effector 2D
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Effectors 2D

Use Effector 2D componentsA functional part of a GameObject. A GameObject can contain any number of components. Unity has many built-in components, and you can create your own by writing scripts that inherit from MonoBehaviour. More info
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with Collider 2D components to direct the forces of physics in your project when GameObjectThe fundamental object in Unity scenes, which can represent characters, props, scenery, cameras, waypoints, and more. A GameObject’s functionality is defined by the Components attached to it. More info
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collidersAn invisible shape that is used to handle physical collisions for an object. A collider doesn’t need to be exactly the same shape as the object’s mesh - a rough approximation is often more efficient and indistinguishable in gameplay. More info
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come into contact with each other.

You can use Effector 2D components to create the following effects (among others):